《生命科学》 2021, 33(4): 407-418
核糖体进入位点(internal ribosome entry sites, IRES)常见于许多正链RNA病毒基因组以及部分细胞基因。在营养缺乏、内质网应激、缺氧和病毒感染等不利条件下，细胞翻译也能够从经典的帽子依赖型翻译转换为依赖于IRES的翻译机制。事实上，自IRES被发现以来，其相关的翻译机制调控被认为是病毒感染的关键步骤，对病毒毒力、组织靶向性和致病性具有重要作用。因此，研究IRES的结构及其功能有助于揭示病毒致病的机制，对发展有效的病毒预防或控制策略具有重要意义。该文主要对RNA病毒中目前发现的IRES结构、类型及其相关的反式调控因子和作用机制作一综述。
通讯作者：龙健儿 , Email:firstname.lastname@example.org
IRES (internal ribosome entry sites) is generally observed in many positive-strand RNA virus, and also identified in the cells involved in cellular stress response, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis. The cellular canonical cap-dependent translation could be shifted to IRES-dependent translation under some disadvantageous conditions, including nutritional deficiencies, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, hypoxia, and viral infection. By contrast, IRES-mediated translation shutoff of the cellular cap-dependent translation was considered to be a critical mechanism in some viral life cycle, and played an important role in the viral virulence, tissue tropism, and pathogenicity. This review will focus on the specific structures of different IRES type and how it works in the viral protein translation under the regulation of cis- or trans-acting factors. Research progress in the molecular mechanism of viral translation would benefit to understand the viral pathogenesis and shows great significance for the control of viral infections.
Communication Author：LONG Jian-Er , Email:email@example.com