摘 要：摘 要：环加氧酶(cyclooxygenase，COX)是参与花生四烯酸代谢途径的限速酶，可催化花生四烯酸转化为前列腺素(prostaglandins，PGs)。已知哺乳动物的COX至少有两种异构酶，分别是固有表达的COX-1和诱导表达的COX-2。目前认为COX-1产生具有生理作用的前列腺素参与维持机体正常的生理功能；而COX-2产生的前列腺素主要参与炎症。但随着研究的深入，发现两者生成的前列腺素的生物功能不仅更复杂，而且还存在着相互联系。本文回顾了近年来环加氧酶在多种疾病中的研究进展，并探讨了环加氧酶作为一个潜在的治疗靶点的可能性。
Abstract: Abstract: Cyclooxygenase (COX), a rate-limited enzyme in arachidonic acid metabolic pathways, can catalyse the synthesis of cyclic endoperoxides from arachidonic acid to form prostaglandins (PGs). Two cyclooxygenase isoforms have been identified and referred to as constitutive COX-1 and inducible COX-2. According to a popular hypothesis, COX-1 generates "good"prostaglandins for physiological housekeeping functions, while COX-2 forms the "bad" prostaglandins responsible for inflammatory symptoms. However, recent data show that the biological functions of prostanoids formed by the two enzymes are much more complex and interrelated than previously appreciated. The objective of the article is to provide an overview of recent developments in the field about the role of COX in various diseases, and to discuss the feasibility as a potential target for therapeutic treatment.
Key words: cyclooxygenase; prostaglandins; inflammation; neurodegenerative disease; cardiovascular disease; cancer; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs