《生命科学》 2018, 30(10): 1137-1145
摘 要：摘 要：阐明水稻绿色性状形成的生理基础对于指导绿色超级稻品种的选育及其栽培均有重要意义。该文以“抗旱性强、水分高效、营养高效”等绿色性状为重点，从叶片生理性状、内源激素水平、根系形态生理、群体冠层特征等方面概述了水稻绿色性状形成的生理机制。叶片蒸腾效率和碳、氮代谢相关酶活性较高，激素之间平衡特别是脱落酸与乙烯比值及精胺或亚精胺与腐胺比值高，根量大、根系扎得深、根系活性强，根尖细胞中的线粒体、高尔基体等数目多，根系分泌物中苹果酸和琥珀酸浓度较高，群体冠层质量好尤其是粒叶比、糖花比和收获指数高是高产优质、抗旱性强、水分和养分高效利用等绿色性状形成的重要生理基础。今后需要深入研究各绿色性状形成的生理生化机制及其相互关系，各绿色性状协调形成的生理基础、环境适应性和栽培调控的作用及其调控原理。
Abstract: Abstract: Understanding the physiological bases for the formation of green traits in rice will have great significance in breeding and selecting a green super rice variety and developing crop management strategies for its cultivation.Focused on the green traits of strong drought resistance， high water use efficiency and high nutrition use efficiency in rice， this paper summarized the physiological mechanism underlying the formation of green traits from the aspects of leaf physiological characters， endogenous hormones， root morphology and physiology， and canopy characteristics. Greater transpiration efficiency and higher activities of the enzymes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism of leaves， the balance among the hormones， especially a higher ratio of abscisic acid to ethylene， and a higher ratio of spermine or spermidine to the putrescine， a larger root biomass， a deeper root system and a stronger root activity， more number of mitochondria and Golgi bodies in the root tip cells， higher concentrations of malic acid and succinic acid in the root exudates， and a healthier canopy， especially with a higher spikelet no.-leaf area ratio， nonstructural carbohydrate-spikelet no. ratio and a higher harvest index are important physiological bases for high yield， good quality， drought resistance， and high use efficiencies of water and nutrition. Further investigations are needed to deeply elucidate the physiological and biochemical mechanisms in which each green trait forms and the relationship between or among the traits， the physiological bases for the coordinated formation of green traits， the environmental adaptability of each green trait， and the role of crop management in the regulating green trait formation and its regulation mechanism.