中国科技核心期刊
CN:31-1600/Q
ISSN:1004-0374
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《生命科学》 2013, 25(5): 451-457
青藏高原植物资源与种子库建设
孙 航*,张建文,乐霁培
(中国科学院昆明植物研究所,昆明 650201)
摘 要:青藏高原的特殊生境孕育了珍贵的植物种质及遗传资源,这是大自然留给人类及其他生物的宝贵财产,但其正面临着人类活动加剧、资源过度开发、全球气候变暖等威胁。因此对青藏高原特殊生境下的野生植物种质资源开展调查、收集、保存、充分开发和可持续利用工作刻不容缓。项目通过对青藏高原大部分地区(除喜马拉雅南坡中低海拔的热带亚热带地区外的青藏高原及横断山区,或根据物种的分布情况部分扩张到邻近地区)为期四年的植物种质调查、采集,现已完成13 638个采集单元,100 472份种质资源的收集和保存。采集类群包括137科825属4 123种,其中不乏濒危、特有及重要经济植物类群。取得喜人成果的同时,项目组对前期工作进行了分析和总结,认为对青藏高原地区植物种质资源的收集和保存工作任重道远,尚需加强;相关工作的不断深化对项目参与人员的植物分类学基础及运用能力提出更大挑战;薄弱的种子生物学研究和尚不健全的科学评估体系制约了种质资源的有效收集和保存,尚需进一步跟进与完善。
关键词:青藏高原;种质资源;收集和保存
 
Plant resources in the Tibetan Plateau and construction of the seedbank
SUN Hang*, ZHANG Jian-Wen, YUE Ji-Pei
(Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China)
Abstract: Extreme habitat of the Tibetan Plateau bred a precious plant germplasm and genetic resources, which can be seen as a valuable property that nature bestowed on humans and other animals. However, this treasure is now facing threats from increased human activities, resources over-exploitation, as well as the global warming. For a better preservation and sustainable usage of this valuable property, it is critical to carry out extensive investigations and collections on the wild plant germplasm resources from extreme habitats of the Tibetan Plateau timely. We had launched an inventory project in 2008 to investigate and collect wild plant germplasm from Tibetan Plateau. During the past four years, we have surveyed most part of the Tibetan Plateau, including the Hengduan Mountains region, the Tibetan Plateau precluding tropical and subtropical areas from low to middle altitude of the southern slope of the Himalayan, and the adjacent regions where wanted species distributed. In total, we have archived 13,638 collecting units, within which contain 100,472 copies of wild plant germplasm. The collected taxa included 4,123 species belonging to 825 genera and 137 families, many of which are endangered, endemic and economically important plant groups. To provide insights for future work, we now summarize experiences and lessons based on our previous work. Although we have got an encouraging achievement, there is a long way to go for a better collection and preservation of wild plant germplasm in the Tibetan Plateau. As the work goes on, profound plant taxonomy knowledge and the ability to use them properly are desperately required for all project participants. Furthermore, currently undeveloped seed biology study and unreasonable evaluation system for inventory work have seriously hindered the effective collection and preservation of germplasm resources from this region. It still needs lots of effort to make these issues being followed up and improved.
Key words: Tibetan Plateau; germplasm; collect and preserve
 
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