中国科技核心期刊
CN:31-1600/Q
ISSN:1004-0374
“健康与疾病的免疫”国际学术研讨会通知      关于有网站冒充本刊网站的声明
《生命科学》 2012, 24(11): 1302-1307
克隆技术引发的伦理之争
乔中东,王莲芸*
(上海交通大学生命科学技术学院,上海 200240)
摘 要:自从克隆羊多莉诞生以来,有关克隆人的伦理学争论就一直喋喋不休。世界上的各种政治组织和各国政府都明确反对生殖性克隆,而科学家们则对克隆技术的不完善心存疑虑。为了克服克隆过程中的伦理学障碍和技术缺陷,科学家们在核移植技术的基础上,又发展了异种核移植技术、诱导多能干细胞技术等。诱导的多能干细胞可以分化成各种组织,甚至能发育成个体,这些方法使克隆技术不再破坏胚胎,避免了伦理学纠纷。尽管科学技术在进步,但是人们对克隆人仍有很多不解和困惑。从自主、不伤害、行善和公正等四大生命伦理学原则着手,在技术层面上提出了尽管克隆人不会搞乱人际关系,不会减少人类基因多样性,也不会克隆出类似希特勒的战争狂人,但是,人类的生殖性克隆却剥夺了克隆人的自主性,对克隆人的生理和心理都有所伤害,违反了公正和行善的原则。因此,是否可以克隆人在伦理上仍然是需要长期讨论的问题。
关键词:克隆技术;生命伦理;诱导多能干细胞;生殖性克隆
 
Bioethical argument by cloning technique
QIAO Zhong-Dong, WANG Lian-Yun*
(School of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240, China)

Abstract: Since Dolly was born, the ethical argument of the human cloning keeps chackling. Almost all of political organisms as well as governments worldwide clearly claimed their opposite opinions to clone a person for the reproductive purpose; moreover, scientists delivered their qualm about faultiness of the clone technique. In order to overcome the technical obstruction and ethical limitation, scientists developed heterogenetical nuclear transfer and induced pluripotent stem cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells could develop into tissues, or even an individual, which avoids destroying embryo. Although the technique of cloning has been ameliorated, the puzzlement about cloning human still exists. This review discussed the possibility of cloning human from four major principles of bioethics. In spite that human cloning would not confuse the balance of relationship of people, would not deliver a next Hitler, and would not reduced the genetic polymorphism, it would deprive the autonomy of the cloned individual, bring physical and mental damages to them, and naturally violate the principles of beneficence and justice. Hence, in ethics, there are many problems to be solved in future.
Key words: clone technique; bioethics; induced pluripotent stem cells; reproductive cloning

 
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