中国科技核心期刊
CN:31-1600/Q
ISSN:1004-0374
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《生命科学》 2011, 23(5): 519-524
长江江豚种群衰退机理研究进展
梅志刚1,2,郝玉江1,3,郑劲松1,3,王克雄1,3,李松海1,3,王 丁1,3*
(1 中国科学院水生生物研究所,武汉 430072;2 中国科学院研究生院,北京 100039;3 中国科学院水生生物多样性与保护重点实验室,武汉 430072)
摘 要:长江江豚(Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis)是生活于我国长江中下游的一种独特的淡水小型鲸类,1996年被收录为IUCN濒危物种。在过去的三十年间,其种群数量呈快速下降趋势。数据显示,20世纪90年代以来,其种群下降速率约为每年6.3%。2006年考察发现长江干流中其种群数量少于1 200头,与15年前相比减少了50%以上。为了深入了解造成长江江豚种群快速衰退的机理,课题组从种群生态学、生物声学和种群遗传学三个方面开展研究工作。综述了该项目的研究进展,并对下一步的研究计划进行了展望。相关研究不仅能促进长江江豚保护生物学理论的发展,也有助于深化对白鱀豚衰退和灭绝过程的反思,并为其他长江水生生物资源的保护提供理论借鉴。
关键词:长江江豚;衰退机理;种群生态学;生物声学;种群遗传学
 
Research progress on population decline mechanism of the endangered Yangtze finless porpoise
MEI Zhi-Gang1,2, HAO Yu-Jiang1,3, ZHENG Jin-Song1,3, WANG Ke-Xiong1,3, LI Song-Hai1,3, WANG Ding1,3*
(1 Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China; 2 Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China; 3 Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China)
Abstract: The Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), as a relatively isolated and unique freshwater population, is endemic to the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and is listed as an endangered species in IUCN Red List since 1996. Its population has been declining continually in the past three  decades with a rate of about 6.3% per annum since early 1990s. The survey conducted in 2006 found that there were less than 1 200 individuals left in the main channel of the Yangtze River, which was less than half of the population size in the early 1990s. This project aims to explore the possible population decline mechanism of the Yangtze finless porpoise through aspects of population ecology, bioacoustics and population genetics. This paper reviews the research progress, and prospects research plans that will be carried out in the coming future. This project helps to develop the conservation biology theory of the Yangtze finless porpoise, and also helps to understand the decline and extinction mechanism of the probably extinct baiji (Lipotex vexillifer), another cetacean species once endemic to the Yangtze River. Moreover, this project could also provide some theoretical support for conservation of other aquatic animals in the Yangtze River.
Key words: Yangtze finless porpoise; population decline mechanism; population ecology; bioacoustics; population genetics
 
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