中国科技核心期刊
CN:31-1600/Q
ISSN:1004-0374
“健康与疾病的免疫”国际学术研讨会通知      关于有网站冒充本刊网站的声明
《生命科学》 2011, 23(2): 186-194
转基因植物的环境生物安全:转基因逃逸及其潜在生态风险的研究和评价
卢宝荣*,夏 辉
(复旦大学生命科学学院生态与进化生物学系,教育部生物多样性与生态工程重点实验室,上海 200433)

摘 要:转基因作物的商品化生产和大规模环境释放在带来巨大利益的同时,也引起了全球对其生物安全问题的广泛关注和争议,其中转基因通过花粉介导的基因漂移逃逸到非转基因作物及其野生近缘种,进而导致的潜在环境和生态风险就是备受争议的生物安全问题之一。转基因植物的环境生物安全涉及两方面关键问题:如何科学评价转基因植物商品化种植以后带来的环境和生态影响;如何利用环境生物安全的研究成果来制定科学有效的风险监测和管理措施。对转基因逃逸及其潜在生态风险的科学评价应包括三个重要环节:(1) 检测转基因的逃逸的频率;(2) 检测转基因逃逸后的表达和遗传规律;(3) 确定逃逸后的转基因对野生近缘种群体适合度的影响及其进化潜力。本文将围绕对转基因逃逸及其潜在环境风险的科学评价,以转基因水稻为案例来对转基因逃逸带来生态影响的研究好评价的进展进行简要介绍,并对目前依据风险评价研究成果制定的各种管理策略进行了讨论。只有提高对转基因生物环境安全研究和评价的水平,并制定有效的风险监测和管理措施,才能为我国转基因技术的发展和转基因产品的商品化应用保驾护航。


    


关键词:生态风险;基因漂移;转基因逃逸;环境生物安全;转基因水稻
中图分类号:X503.23 文献标识码:A

 
Environmental biosafety of transgenic plants: research and assessment of transgene escape and its potential ecological impacts
LU Bao-Rong*, XIA Hui
(Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China)

Abstract: The commercialization and extensive environmental release of transgenic crops have not only brought huge economic and social benefits, but also aroused worldwide concerns and debates over the biosafety issues. Among these, transgene escape via gene flow and its potential environmental risks is the most debated issue. There are two important aspects concerning environmental biosafety of transgenic plants: how to effectively assess environmental impacts brought by transgenic plants after extensive commercial cultivation; and how to strategically utilize scientific results obtained from research and assessment to effectively mitigate and manage the potential ecological risks. To effectively evaluate the ecological consequences scientifically, three steps should be involved:
(i)to measure the frequency of transgene escape, (ii)to study the expression and inheritance patterns of transgenes in wild relatives after escape, and (iii)to analyze fitness impacts of the transgenes in wild populations. This article will focus on the current status of environmental biosafety researches and assessment, using the studies on transgenic rice as a case, and the scientific strategies applied to mitigate and manage the ecological risks caused by transgene
escape. The rigorous assessment of ecological risks and the effective risk managements will facilitate the beneficial utilization of transgenic crops and reduce the potential biosafety impacts.


    


Key words: ecological risk; gene flow; transgene escape; environmental biosafety; transgenic rice

 
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