中国科技核心期刊
CN:31-1600/Q
ISSN:1004-0374
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《生命科学》 2017, 29(6): 557-561
母源物质对重编程作用研究进展
廖 辰, 张雨薇, 沈星辉, 黄星卫, 雷 蕾*
(哈尔滨医科大学组织学与胚胎学教研室,哈尔滨 150081)
摘 要:卵母细胞发生过程中会积累大量的物质,即所谓的母源物质(maternal materials),自然状态下,这些母源物质对受精以及之后的发育具有重要的生物学功能。雌雄配子融合后,精子核与卵母细胞中单倍体染色体组均会发生剧烈的表观遗传修饰变化,这个过程也同样发生在体细胞核移植到卵母细胞质之后,这种变化被称之为重编程。重编程奠定了新个体发生发育全部程序的基础,因此是一个备受重视的生物学过程。重编程包括DNA 去甲基化、染色质重塑和组蛋白修饰等。受精后,卵母细胞与精子的基因组均会在一定时间和空间范围内经历相应的重编程过程,清除各自基因组在配子形成中保留的表观遗传学修饰,调控基因表达并形成正常发育的全能性胚胎。受精后,卵母细胞成熟中积累的多种母源物质聚集在雄原核周围,调控其基因组的重编程。体细胞核移植胚胎中供体细胞核注到去核卵母细胞后也将在卵母细胞中蛋白质、mRNA、酶类等母源物质的作用下进行重编程。现总结了母源物质对雄原核及供体细胞核重编程作用的研究进展,并探讨了母源物质作用的可能机制。
 
Research progress of the effects of maternal materials on the reprogramming
LIAO Chen, ZHANG Yu-Wei, SHEN Xing-Hui, HUANG Xing-Wei, LEI Lei*
(Department of Histology and Embryology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081, China)
Abstract: Maternal materials, which accumulate during oogenesis, play vital roles throughout development of zygotes. After the fusion of female and male gamete, their genomes experience intense epigenetical modifications, as well for the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, which are called as reprogramming. Reprogramming lay the basis for all new individual development programs, consequently it’s a crucial biologically process, which includes DNA demethylation, chromatin remodelling and histone modification, etc. After fertilization, the genome of gametes experience corresponding reprogramming events temporally and spatially, which eliminate the epigenetic modifications on the genomes and regulate gene expression of embryos, then, lead to formation of totipotent embryos. The maternal materials accumulated during oocyte maturation, surrounding the male pronucleus, affecting its reprogramming upon fertilization. The donor cell nucleus, transfered into enucleated oocyte cytoplasm in the procedure of somatic cell nuclear transfer, undergoes the reprogramming under the action of abundant proteins, mRNA and enzymes. We summarized the reprogramming effects of maternal materials on male pronucleus and donor cell nucleus in recent researches. Moreover, the mechanisms of maternal materials involved in reprogramming were also discussed.
 
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