中国科技核心期刊
CN:31-1600/Q
ISSN:1004-0374
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《生命科学》 2016, 28(5): 592-601
异向转录基因对的鉴定、调控及其功能
肖正涛1,2,3,4,王雨亭1,3,4,5,杨雪瑞1,2,3,4*
(1 清华大学生物信息学教育部重点实验室,北京 100084;2 清华-北大生命科学联合中心,北京 100084;3 清华大学合成与系统生物学中心,北京 100084;4 清华大学生命科学学院,北京 100084;5 清华大学PTN研究生项目,北京 100084)
摘 要:转录起始位置临近的两个基因分别向两个方向的转录( 异向转录) 在哺乳动物基因组中广泛存在,例如许多编码基因与非编码基因形成异向转录基因对。近年来的研究表明异向转录受到多种因素的调控,如转录终止、基因成环结构、染色体修饰、核小体重构等。异向转录产物可以影响相邻基因的表达,或者产生增强子RNA 影响其他基因的表达,同时也被认为是进化过程中产生新基因的途径之一。现总结近年来围绕异向转录基因对的鉴定、调控及功能的研究进展,并讨论该研究领域可能的发展方向。
 
Identifications, regulations, and functions of divergent transcription
XIAO Zheng-Tao1,2,3,4, WANG Yu-Ting1,3,4,5, YANG Xue-Rui1,2,3,4*
(1 MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; 2 Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, Beijing 100084, China; 3 Center for Synthetic & Systems Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; 4 School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; 5 Joint Graduate Program of Peking-Tsinghua-National Institute of Biological Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China)
Abstract: Divergent transcription is frequently found in mammalian genomes, producing pairs of transcripts from the two strands of DNA. For example, the transcription of many coding genes was found to be accompanied by transcription of a non-coding gene on the opposite direction. Divergent transcription is tightly regulated via various machanisms, including transcription termination, gene loop, chromatin modification, and nucleosome remodeling. The transcripts from divergent transcription can affect the transcription of nearby genes, or other genes by generating enhancer RNAs. In addition, divergent transcription may facilitate the origin of new genes in evolution. Here we provide a review on the recent research in the identifications, regulation machineries, and functions of divergent transcription, together with a brief discussion on the future directions of the field.
 
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