中国科技核心期刊
CN:31-1600/Q
ISSN:1004-0374
“健康与疾病的免疫”国际学术研讨会通知      关于有网站冒充本刊网站的声明
《生命科学》 2016, 28(3): 303-310
猪瘟病毒的遗传多样性与进化
龚文杰1,2,史记暑2,涂长春1*
(1 军事医学科学院军事兽医研究所,长春 130122;2 美国堪萨斯州立大学兽医学院,堪萨斯州曼哈顿市 66506)
摘 要:猪瘟是由猪瘟病毒(classical swine fever virus, CSFV) 引起的一种严重危害全球养猪业的烈性传染病,是被OIE 列为必须通报的动物疫病之一。基于病毒基因组片段核苷酸序列的系统进化分析,将猪瘟病毒分为3 个基因型( 基因1~3 型) 和11 个基因亚型(1.1~1.4、2.1~2.3 和3.1~3.4)。不同基因型或基因亚型病毒株的流行与进化受到了时空、宿主动物和猪瘟防控策略的制约。欧洲流行的猪瘟病毒株从20 世纪70 年代由基因1 型转变为基因2 型,其中该地区野猪群中流行的毒株属于基因2.2 和2.3 亚型,拉丁美洲国家流行的猪瘟病毒株一直为基因1 型,韩国和我国台湾流行的毒株在20 世纪末由基因3 型转换为基因2.1 亚型。随着鉴定的基因2.1 亚型毒株的增加,该亚型可进一步划分为3 个亚亚型(2.1a~2.1c),这3 个亚亚型的毒株在我国都有流行,其中2.1b 是我国流行的优势毒株。研究表现突变是促进猪瘟病毒进化的主要动力,同时,同源重组和准种在猪瘟病毒进化过程中也扮演了一定角色。综上所述,对猪瘟病毒流行毒株进行遗传与进化分析可以追踪病毒的来源和掌握该病毒的流行现状以及进化规律,为有效防控猪瘟的发生与流行提供理论指导。
 
Genetic diversity and evolution of classical swine fever virus
GONG Wen-Jie1,2, SHI Ji-Shu2, TU Chang-Chun1*
(1 Military Veterinary Institute, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun 130122, China; 2 College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan 66506, Kansas, USA)
Abstract: Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by the CSF virus, is a highly contagious swine disease leading to significant economic losses for the pig industry worldwide. CSF is recognized as one of OIE notifiable diseases. Phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleotide sequences of viral gene fragments shows that CSFV isolates can be divided into three genotypes (genotypes 1~3), which are further separated into 3 to 4 subgenotypes (1.1~1.4, 2.1~2.3 and 3.1~3.4). The temporal-spatial dynamics, host factors and control strategies have significant impact on the genetic diversity, distribution and evolution of CSFV isolates. It has been demonstrated that in Europe, where culling of infected pigs as control strategy was performed, genotype 1 isolates were switched to genotype 2 since 1970s, while CSF isolates circulating in wild boar population remain to be subgenotypes 2.2 and 2.3. In Latin America, genotype 1 viruses are only isolates circulating in this region. Furthermore, the major genotypes of CSF viruses in Korea and Taiwan were switched from genotype 3 to subgenotype 2.1 since the end of 20th century. The latter along with subgenotype 1.1 are predominant in mainland China. As the increasing number of CSF viruses detected in recent years, subgentoype 2.1 has been further classified into 3 sub-subgenotypes (2.1a~2.1c) and all of them have been found present in China. Most recent studies showed that nucleotide mutation has been recognized as the key factor to drive CSFV evolution. Moreover, homologous recombination and quasispecies also play important roles in the adaptation of CSFV to the environment. In conclusion, studies on genetic variation, genotype distribution and evolution of CSF viruses may provide useful insights into the control and prevention of this devastating disease.
 
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