中国科技核心期刊
CN:31-1600/Q
ISSN:1004-0374
“健康与疾病的免疫”国际学术研讨会通知      关于有网站冒充本刊网站的声明
《生命科学》 2014, 26(11): 1194-1199
人细胞端粒DNA复制与长度维持
景亚青1,赵 勇2*,王 峰1*
(1 天津医科大学基础医学院,天津 300070;2 中山大学生命科学学院,广州 510275)
摘 要:端粒位于染色体末端,由短的串联重复DNA 片段及其结合蛋白组成。端粒在维持基因组稳定性及染色体结构完整性方面发挥着重要作用。端粒DNA 由富含G/C 的序列构成,包括双链区及G 含量高的3'悬垂单链区(G-overhang, G-tail)。端粒DNA 能够形成G 四联体(G-quadruplex) 和T 环(T-loop) 等高级结构。许多与DNA 损伤修复相关的蛋白质参与端粒DNA 的复制与端粒结构的维持,并相对于基因组的其他区域,端粒的DNA 复制较为特别,从广义上讲,端粒DNA 的复制可以包括双链复制(telomere replication),端粒酶复制延伸(telomerase extension) 和C 链补齐(C-rich fill-in)。端粒双链复制引起的端粒长度缩短是导致人体细胞衰老的重要原因,而端粒酶复制延伸及C 链补齐是干细胞及肿瘤细胞维持其端粒长度及持续分裂能力的主要途径。端粒复制及其结构功能研究是生物医学领域的一个重要热点,阐释端粒复制的机理将为疾病预防及治疗等提供新的思路。
 
Human telomere replication and length maintenance
JING Ya-Qing1, ZHAO Yong2*, WANG Feng1*
(1 Basic Medical College, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China;
    2 School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China)
Abstract: Telomeres are special nucleoprotein complex composed of repetitive sequence. Telomeres play important roles in chromosome integrality and genome stability. Telomeric DNA is usually G/C rich, and contains the double stranded region and G-rich single-stranded region with a 3'-tail. In addition, telomere DNA can form G-qudruplex and T-loop structures. The replication of telomeric DNA is different from that of other genomic loci. In general, replication of telomere has three steps, including double-strand telomere DNA replication, telomerase extension and C-rich fill-in. While telomere DNA replication leads to progressive telomere shortening due to “End Replication Problem”, telomerase elongation and C-rich fill-in extend telomere, thus maintaining telomere length homeostasis in most human cancer cells and stem cells. Telomere replication is a hot spot in telomere biology, and the findings in this field will provide a new clue for disease prevention and treatment.
 
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