中国科技核心期刊
CN:31-1600/Q
ISSN:1004-0374
“健康与疾病的免疫”国际学术研讨会通知      关于有网站冒充本刊网站的声明
《生命科学》 2014, 26(2): 112-117
生态位分化与森林群落物种多样性维持研究展望
陈 磊*,米湘成,马克平
(中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室,北京 100093)
摘 要:一直以来,生态学家和进化生物学家对森林群落物种多样格局及其形成机制持有不同的观点。虽然Robert Ricklefs 将进化和生态过程整合的观点已经被群落生态学家广泛接受,但是区域物种进化历史以及局域群落微进化过程是否能够影响群落生态学过程以及这些过程如何影响群落结构和动态还有待商榷。经典的生态位理论同时强调了种间和种内生态位分化对群落多样性维持的影响。但是生态学家普遍认为种间差异足以代表群落内个体间的相互作用关系,并且由于进化过程导致的种内分化往往涉及较长的时间尺度,因此,虽然种内差异是自然选择的重要材料,物种对环境的适应性进化过程所导致的种内分化对群落构建的影响往往被生态学家所忽视。为此,通过回顾种间和个体生态位分化的研究历史,对两类研究分别进行简要阐述,强调在今后的群落生态学研究中需要考虑个体分化对局域群落构建的影响。
 
Niche differentiation and its consequence on biodiversity maintenance in forest communities
CHEN Lei*, MI Xiang-Cheng, MA Ke-Ping
(State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany,
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China)
Abstract: Until recently, ecologists and evolutionary biologists still posit different perceptions about the patterns of species richness in forest communities. Despite Ricklefs’ concept on the integration of historical perspective with ecological processes was widely accepted by ecologists, considerable issues as to whether and how these processes influence local community structure remain unresolved. Classical niche-based coexistence theory has invoked niche variation both among species and individuals of same populations. However, the intraspecific heterogeneity has always been ignored by ecologists despite it is the natural material for natural selection and several recent studies have demonstrated its importance for species coexistence and community assembly. Herein, we review recent advances in both interspecific niche differentiation and individual specialization and emphasize the importance to incorporate evolutionary components in future ecological studies.
 
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